This week in labor history: December 26-January 1

1869 – Knights of Labor founded. Constitution bars from membership “parasites,” including stockbrokers and lawyers.

1877 – Workingmen’s Party is reorganized as the Socialist Labor Party.

1943 – President Roosevelt seizes the railroads to avert a nationwide strike. His decision to temporarily place the railroads under the “supervision” of the War Department prompts the five railroad brotherhoods to agree to his offer to arbitrate the wage dispute.

1865 – The coffee percolator is patented by James H. Mason of Franklin, Mass., placing himself forever in the debt of millions of caffeine-dependent working people.

1936 – Auto workers begin sit-down strike for union recognition at GM’s Fisher Body plant in Cleveland.
1952 – Country music legend Hank Williams attends what is to be his last musicians’ union meeting, at the Elite (pronounced E-light) café in Montgomery, Ala.  He died of apparent heart failure three days later at the age of 29.

1970 – After years of intensive lobbying by the Labor Movement, a comprehensive national safety law is enacted as President Nixon signs the Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970, creating the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA).

2006 – More than 15,000 United Steel Workers members at 16 Goodyear Tire & Rubber plants end an 86-day strike and ratify a three-year contract.

1899 – Gathering in the back room of Behrens’ cigar shop in Sedalia, Mo., 33 railroad clerks form Local Lodge Number 1 of a union they named the Order of the Railroad Clerks of America.

1905 – Idaho Gov. Frank Steunenberg, who had brutally suppressed the state’s miners, is killed by an assassin’s bomb. Legendary Western Federation of Miners and IWW leader William “Big Bill” Haywood and two other men were put on trial for the death, but were ultimately declared innocent.
1936 – GM sit-down strike spreads to Flint, Mich., will last 44 days before ending in union victory.

1931 – Sixty thousand unemployed workers rally at a Pittsburgh stadium.

1969 – United Mine Workers reformer Joseph “Jock” Yablonski, his wife and daughter are murdered by hitmen hired by union president Tony Boyle, who was to be convicted of the crime and eventually die in prison.
1987 – OSHA adopts a grain handling facilities standard to protect 155,000 workers at nearly 24,000 grain elevators from the risk of fire and explosion from highly combustible grain dust.

1863 – Emancipation Proclamation signed.

1875 – Women weavers form union, Fall River, Mass.
1920 – John L. Lewis is elected president of the United Mine Workers. Fifteen years later he is to be a leader in the formation of what was to become the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
1932 – With the Great Depression in full force, the year 1932 opens with 14 million unemployed, national income down by 50 percent, and breadlines that include former shopkeepers, businessmen and middle-class housewives. Charity is overwhelmed: only one-quarter of America’s unemployed are receiving any help at all.
1931 – Workers begin to acquire credits toward Social Security pension benefits. Employers and employees became subject to a tax of one percent of wages on up to $3,000 a year.
1939 – Adolph Strasser, head of the Cigar Maker’s Union and one of the founders of the AFL in 1886, died on this day in Forest Park, Ill.
1966 – Members of the Transport Workers Union and Amalgamated Transit Union working for the New York transit system begin what is to be a successful 12-day strike. Fiery TWU leader Mike Quill, jailed for several days during the strike, then hospitalized, died three days after his release from the hospital.
1994 – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) takes effect, despite objections by Labor.

(Compiled by David Prosten, founder of Union Communication Services)